A mutation is any change in the DNA base sequence (genetic information) resulting in new species of plants and animals does not occur normaly.

Evolution is
change in the properties of populations of organisms or groups of such populations, over the course of generations.

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The different species have distinct beak sizes and shapes, evolutionary evidence of adaptive
radiation. The different island the birds found different food items and the ones that had a beak specilaized for the food item on that island lived and the ones that had a different beak speclized for another food item died or fly to another island. The rapid development of new species to fill many ecological gaps.
Although each species can feed in various ways, all have a specialized
way that helps them to survive in their own specific ecological world
when food is more difficult to find. Most species of Darwin’s finches eat
iguanas.On Wolf Island, the Sharp-Billed Ground finches peck seabirds then feed on the blood, and have become known as ‘vampire finches’. Two species,the Woodpecker and Mangrove finches, sometimes use small sticks orcactus spines to dig insects out of holes in dead trees. All these birds come from a common ancestor. Some 10,000 years ago a bunch of small finches made their way from South America to Galapous Islands.FinchTypes.jpg

Indivudal oragnisims don't evolve populations evolve. Because individuals in a population vary, some in the population are better able to survive and reproduce given a particular set of environmental conditions. These individuals generally survive and produce more offspring, thus passing their advantageous traits on to the next generation. Over time, the population changes.

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White tigers are individual specimens of the ordinary tiger with a gentic
condition that almost completly takes away pigment in the normally orange fur although they still have dark stripes. This occurs when a tiger inherits two copies of the ressive geane for the paler coloration: pink nose, grey-mottled skin, ice-blue eyes, and white to cream-coloured fur with black, grey, or chocolate-coloured stripes. White tigers do not constitute a separate subspecies of their own and can breed with orange ones, although all of the resulting offspring will be heterozygous for the recessive white gene, and their fur will be orange. The only exception would be if the orange parent was itself already a heterozygous tiger, which would give each cub a 50% chance of being either double-recessive white or heterozygous orange. The unusual colouration of white tigers has made them popular in zoos and entertainment that showcases exotic animals. The magicians, Siegfried & Roy are famous for having bred and trained white tigers for their performances.

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All along north america frogs have become drasticly deformed scientist have not figured out why but have narrowed it down between two possible hypothesises.

1. The Parasite Hypothesis: A small parasite called a TREMATODE burrows into a tadpole near where the legs will develop. This parasite gets in the way and causes legs to develop incorrectly.

2. The Pesticide Hypothesis: A chemical called METHOPRENE is used by many farmers as a pesticide. After it has been in the sun, this pesticide changes into another chemical that may cause frog deformities. As you can see frogs have been growing more legs than normal.

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